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Serverless

Introduced in GitLab 11.5.

CAUTION: Caution: Serverless is currently in alpha.

Overview

Serverless architectures offer Operators and Developers the ability write highly scalable applications without provisioning a single server.

GitLab supports several ways deploy Serverless applications in both Kubernetes Environments and also major cloud FAAS environments.

Currently we support:

  • Knative: Build Knative applications with Knative and gitlabktl on GKE.
  • AWS Lambda: Create serverless applications via the Serverless Framework and GitLab CI.

Knative

Run serverless workloads on Kubernetes using Knative.

Knative extends Kubernetes to provide a set of middleware components that are useful to build modern, source-centric, container-based applications. Knative brings some significant benefits out of the box through its main components:

  • Serving: Request-driven compute that can scale to zero.
  • Eventing: Management and delivery of events.

For more information on Knative, visit the Knative docs repo.

With GitLab Serverless, you can deploy both functions-as-a-service (FaaS) and serverless applications.

Prerequisites

To run Knative on GitLab, you will need:

  1. Existing GitLab project: You will need a GitLab project to associate all resources. The simplest way to get started:

    • If you are planning on deploying functions, clone the functions example project to get started.
    • If you are planning on deploying a serverless application, clone the sample Knative Ruby App to get started.
  2. Kubernetes Cluster: An RBAC-enabled Kubernetes cluster is required to deploy Knative. The simplest way to get started is to add a cluster using GitLab's GKE integration. The set of minimum recommended cluster specifications to run Knative is 3 nodes, 6 vCPUs, and 22.50 GB memory.

  3. Helm Tiller: Helm is a package manager for Kubernetes and is required to install Knative.

  4. GitLab Runner: A runner is required to run the CI jobs that will deploy serverless applications or functions onto your cluster. You can install the GitLab Runner onto the existing Kubernetes cluster. See Installing Applications for more information.

  5. Domain Name: Knative will provide its own load balancer using Istio. It will provide an external IP address or hostname for all the applications served by Knative. You will be prompted to enter a wildcard domain where your applications will be served. Configure your DNS server to use the external IP address or hostname for that domain.

  6. .gitlab-ci.yml: GitLab uses Kaniko to build the application. We also use gitlabktl CLI to simplify the deployment of services and functions to Knative.

  7. serverless.yml (for functions only): When using serverless to deploy functions, the serverless.yml file will contain the information for all the functions being hosted in the repository as well as a reference to the runtime being used.

  8. Dockerfile (for applications only: Knative requires a Dockerfile in order to build your applications. It should be included at the root of your project's repo and expose port 8080. Dockerfile is not require if you plan to build serverless functions using our runtimes.

  9. Prometheus (optional): Installing Prometheus allows you to monitor the scale and traffic of your serverless function/application. See Installing Applications for more information.

  10. Logging (optional): Configuring logging allows you to view and search request logs for your serverless function/application. See Configuring logging for more information.

Installing Knative via GitLab's Kubernetes integration

NOTE: Note: The minimum recommended cluster size to run Knative is 3-nodes, 6 vCPUs, and 22.50 GB memory. RBAC must be enabled.

  1. Add a Kubernetes cluster and install Helm.

  2. Once Helm has been successfully installed, scroll down to the Knative app section. Enter the domain to be used with your application/functions (e.g. example.com) and click Install.

    install-knative

  3. After the Knative installation has finished, you can wait for the IP address or hostname to be displayed in the Knative Endpoint field or retrieve the Istio Ingress Endpoint manually.

    NOTE: Note: Running kubectl commands on your cluster requires setting up access to the cluster first. For clusters created on GKE, see GKE Cluster Access, for other platforms Install kubectl.

  4. The Ingress is now available at this address and will route incoming requests to the proper service based on the DNS name in the request. To support this, a wildcard DNS A record should be created for the desired domain name. For example, if your Knative base domain is knative.info then you need to create an A record or CNAME record with domain *.knative.info pointing the ip address or hostname of the Ingress.

    dns entry

NOTE: Note: You can deploy either functions or serverless applications on a given project but not both. The current implementation makes use of a serverless.yml file to signal a FaaS project.

Using an existing installation of Knative

Introduced in GitLab 12.0.

NOTE: Note: The "invocations" monitoring feature of GitLab serverless will not work when adding an existing installation of Knative.

It is also possible to use GitLab Serverless with an existing Kubernetes cluster which already has Knative installed.

You must do the following:

  1. Follow the steps to add an existing Kubernetes cluster.

  2. Ensure GitLab can manage Knative:

    • For a non-GitLab managed cluster, ensure that the service account for the token provided can manage resources in the serving.knative.dev API group.

    • For a GitLab managed cluster, if you added the cluster in GitLab 12.1 or later, then GitLab will already have the required access and you can proceed to the next step.

      Otherwise, you need to manually grant GitLab's service account the ability to manage resources in the serving.knative.dev API group. Since every GitLab service account has the edit cluster role, the simplest way to do this is with an aggregated ClusterRole adding rules to the default edit cluster role: First, save the following YAML as knative-serving-only-role.yaml:

      apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
      kind: ClusterRole
      metadata:
        name: knative-serving-only-role
        labels:
          rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-edit: "true"
      rules:
      - apiGroups:
        - serving.knative.dev
        resources:
        - configurations
        - configurationgenerations
        - routes
        - revisions
        - revisionuids
        - autoscalers
        - services
        verbs:
        - get
        - list
        - create
        - update
        - delete
        - patch
        - watch

      Then run the following command:

      kubectl apply -f knative-serving-only-role.yaml

      If you would rather grant permissions on a per service account basis, you can do this using a Role and RoleBinding specific to the service account and namespace.

  3. Follow the steps to deploy functions or serverless applications onto your cluster.

Configuring logging

Introduced in GitLab 12.5.

Prerequisites

  • A GitLab-managed cluster.
  • kubectl installed and working.

Running kubectl commands on your cluster requires setting up access to the cluster first. For clusters created on:

Enable request log template

Run the following command to enable request logs:

kubectl edit cm -n knative-serving config-observability

Copy the logging.request-log-template from the data._example field to the data field one level up in the hierarchy.

Enable request logs

Run the following commands to install Elasticsearch, Kibana, and Filebeat into a kube-logging namespace and configure all nodes to forward logs using Filebeat:

kubectl apply -f https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/serverless/configurations/knative/raw/v0.7.0/kube-logging-filebeat.yaml
kubectl label nodes --all beta.kubernetes.io/filebeat-ready="true"

Viewing request logs

To view request logs:

  1. Run kubectl proxy.
  2. Navigate to Kibana UI.

Or:

  1. Open the Kibana UI.
  2. Click on Discover, then select filebeat-* from the dropdown on the left.
  3. Enter kubernetes.container.name:"queue-proxy" AND message:/httpRequest/ into the search box.

Supported runtimes

Serverless functions for GitLab can be written in 6 supported languages:

  • NodeJS and Ruby, with GitLab-managed and OpenFaas runtimes.
  • C#, Go, PHP, and Python with OpenFaaS runtimes only.

GitLab managed runtimes

Currently the following runtimes are offered:

  • ruby
  • node.js
  • Dockerfile

Dockerfile presence is assumed when a runtime is not specified.

OpenFaaS runtimes

Introduced in GitLab 12.5.

OpenFaaS classic runtimes can be used with GitLab serverless. Runtimes are specified using the pattern: openfaas/classic/<template_name>. The following example shows how to define a function in serverless.yml using an OpenFaaS runtime:

hello:
  source: ./hello
  runtime: openfaas/classic/ruby
  description: "Ruby function using OpenFaaS classic runtime"

handler is not needed for OpenFaaS functions. The location of the handler is defined by the conventions of the runtime.

See the ruby-openfaas-function project for an example of a function using an OpenFaaS runtime.

Deploying functions

Introduced in GitLab 11.6.

You can find and import all the files referenced in this doc in the functions example project.

Follow these steps to deploy a function using the Node.js runtime to your Knative instance (you can skip these steps if you've cloned the example project):

  1. Create a directory that will house the function. In this example we will create a directory called echo at the root of the project.

  2. Create the file that will contain the function code. In this example, our file is called echo.js and is located inside the echo directory. If your project is:

    • Public, continue to the next step.
    • Private, you will need to create a GitLab deploy token with gitlab-deploy-token as the name and the read_registry scope.
  3. .gitlab-ci.yml: this defines a pipeline used to deploy your functions. It must be included at the root of your repository:

    include:
      template: Serverless.gitlab-ci.yml
    
    functions:build:
      extends: .serverless:build:functions
      environment: production
    
    functions:deploy:
      extends: .serverless:deploy:functions
      environment: production

    This .gitlab-ci.yml creates jobs that invoke some predefined commands to build and deploy your functions to your cluster.

    Serverless.gitlab-ci.yml is a template that allows customization. You can either import it with include parameter and use extends to customize your jobs, or you can inline the entire template by choosing it from Apply a template dropdown when editing the .gitlab-ci.yml file through the user interface.

  4. serverless.yml: this file contains the metadata for your functions, such as name, runtime, and environment.

    It must be included at the root of your repository. The following is a sample echo function which shows the required structure for the file.

    You can find the relevant files for this project in the functions example project.

    service: functions
    description: "GitLab Serverless functions using Knative"
    
    provider:
      name: triggermesh
      environment:
        FOO: value
    
    functions:
      echo-js:
        handler: echo-js
        source: ./echo-js
        runtime: https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/serverless/runtimes/nodejs
        description: "node.js runtime function"
        environment:
          MY_FUNCTION: echo-js

Explanation of the fields used above:

service

Parameter Description
service Name for the Knative service which will serve the function.
description A short description of the service.

provider

Parameter Description
name Indicates which provider is used to execute the serverless.yml file. In this case, the TriggerMesh middleware.
environment Includes the environment variables to be passed as part of function execution for all functions in the file, where FOO is the variable name and BAR are he variable contents. You may replace this with you own variables.

functions

In the serverless.yml example above, the function name is echo and the subsequent lines contain the function attributes.

Parameter Description
handler The function's name.
source Directory with sources of a functions.
runtime (optional) The runtime to be used to execute the function. When the runtime is not specified, we assume that Dockerfile is present in the function directory specified by source.
description A short description of the function.
environment Sets an environment variable for the specific function only.

After the gitlab-ci.yml template has been added and the serverless.yml file has been created, pushing a commit to your project will result in a CI pipeline being executed which will deploy each function as a Knative service. Once the deploy stage has finished, additional details for the function will appear under Operations > Serverless.

serverless page

This page contains all functions available for the project, the description for accessing the function, and, if available, the function's runtime information. The details are derived from the Knative installation inside each of the project's Kubernetes cluster. Click on each function to obtain detailed scale and invocation data.

The function details can be retrieved directly from Knative on the cluster:

kubectl -n "$KUBE_NAMESPACE" get services.serving.knative.dev

The sample function can now be triggered from any HTTP client using a simple POST call:

  1. Using curl (replace the URL on the last line with the URL of your application):

    curl \
    --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
    --request POST \
    --data '{"GitLab":"FaaS"}' \
    http://functions-echo.functions-1.functions.example.com/
  2. Using a web-based tool (ie. postman, restlet, etc)

    function execution

Running functions locally

Running a function locally is a good way to quickly verify behavior during development.

Running functions locally requires:

  • Go 1.12 or newer installed.

  • Docker Engine installed and running.

  • gitlabktl installed using the Go package manager:

    GO111MODULE=on go get gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlabktl

To run a function locally:

  1. Navigate to the root of your GitLab serverless project.

  2. Build your function into a Docker image:

    gitlabktl serverless build
  3. Run your function in Docker:

    docker run -itp 8080:8080 <your_function_name>
  4. Invoke your function:

    curl http://localhost:8080

Deploying Serverless applications

Introduced in GitLab 11.5.

Serverless applications are the building block of serverless functions. They are useful in scenarios where an existing runtime does not meet the needs of an application, such as one written in a language that has no runtime available. Note though that serverless applications should be stateless!

NOTE: Note: You can reference and import the sample Knative Ruby App to get started.

Add the following .gitlab-ci.yml to the root of your repository (you may skip this step if you've previously cloned the sample Knative Ruby App mentioned above):

include:
  template: Serverless.gitlab-ci.yml

build:
  extends: .serverless:build:image

deploy:
  extends: .serverless:deploy:image

Serverless.gitlab-ci.yml is a template that allows customization. You can either import it with include parameter and use extends to customize your jobs, or you can inline the entire template by choosing it from Apply a template dropdown when editing the .gitlab-ci.yml file through the user interface.

A serverless.yml file is not required when deploying serverless applications.

Deploy the application with Knative

With all the pieces in place, the next time a CI pipeline runs, the Knative application will be deployed. Navigate to CI/CD > Pipelines and click the most recent pipeline.

Obtain the URL for the Knative deployment

Go to the CI/CD > Pipelines and click on the pipeline that deployed your app. Once all the stages of the pipeline finish, click the deploy stage.

deploy stage

The output will look like this:

Running with gitlab-runner 12.1.0-rc1 (6da35412)
  on prm-com-gitlab-org ae3bfce3
Using Docker executor with image registry.gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlabktl:latest ...
Running on runner-ae3bfc-concurrent-0 via runner-ae3bfc ...
Fetching changes...
Authenticating with credentials from job payload (GitLab Registry)
$ /usr/bin/gitlabktl application deploy
Welcome to gitlabktl tool
time="2019-07-15T10:51:07Z" level=info msg="deploying registry credentials"
Creating app-hello function
Waiting for app-hello ready state
Service app-hello URL: http://app-hello.serverless.example.com
Job succeeded

The second to last line, labeled Service domain contains the URL for the deployment. Copy and paste the domain into your browser to see the app live.

knative app

Function details

Go to the Operations > Serverless page and click on one of the function rows to bring up the function details page.

function_details

The pod count will give you the number of pods running the serverless function instances on a given cluster.

Prometheus support

For the Knative function invocations to appear, Prometheus must be installed.

Once Prometheus is installed, a message may appear indicating that the metrics data is loading or is not available at this time. It will appear upon the first access of the page, but should go away after a few seconds. If the message does not disappear, then it is possible that GitLab is unable to connect to the Prometheus instance running on the cluster.

Enabling TLS for Knative services

By default, a GitLab serverless deployment will be served over http. In order to serve over https you must manually obtain and install TLS certificates.

The simplest way to accomplish this is to use Certbot to manually obtain Let's Encrypt certificates. Certbot is a free, open source software tool for automatically using Let’s Encrypt certificates on manually-administrated websites to enable HTTPS.

NOTE: Note: The instructions below relate to installing and running Certbot on a Linux server and may not work on other operating systems.

  1. Install Certbot by running the certbot-auto wrapper script. On the command line of your server, run the following commands:

    wget https://dl.eff.org/certbot-auto
    sudo mv certbot-auto /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto
    sudo chown root /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto
    chmod 0755 /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto
    /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto --help

    To check the integrity of the certbot-auto script, run:

    wget -N https://dl.eff.org/certbot-auto.asc
    gpg2 --keyserver ipv4.pool.sks-keyservers.net --recv-key A2CFB51FA275A7286234E7B24D17C995CD9775F2
    gpg2 --trusted-key 4D17C995CD9775F2 --verify certbot-auto.asc /usr/local/bin/certbot-auto

    The output of the last command should look something like:

    gpg: Signature made Mon 10 Jun 2019 06:24:40 PM EDT
    gpg:                using RSA key A2CFB51FA275A7286234E7B24D17C995CD9775F2
    gpg: key 4D17C995CD9775F2 marked as ultimately trusted
    gpg: checking the trustdb
    gpg: marginals needed: 3  completes needed: 1  trust model: pgp
    gpg: depth: 0  valid:   1  signed:   0  trust: 0-, 0q, 0n, 0m, 0f, 1u
    gpg: next trustdb check due at 2027-11-22
    gpg: Good signature from "Let's Encrypt Client Team <letsencrypt-client@eff.org>" [ultimate]
  2. Run the following command to use Certbot to request a certificate using DNS challenge during authorization:

    ./certbot-auto certonly --manual --preferred-challenges dns -d '*.<namespace>.example.com'

    Where <namespace> is the namespace created by GitLab for your serverless project (composed of <project_name>-<project_id>-<environment>) and example.com is the domain being used for your project. If you are unsure what the namespace of your project is, navigate to the Operations > Serverless page of your project and inspect the endpoint provided for your function/app.

    function_endpoint

    In the above image, the namespace for the project is node-function-11909507 and the domain is knative.info, thus certificate request line would look like this:

    ./certbot-auto certonly --manual --preferred-challenges dns -d '*.node-function-11909507.knative.info'

    The Certbot tool walks you through the steps of validating that you own each domain that you specify by creating TXT records in those domains. After this process is complete, the output should look something like this:

    IMPORTANT NOTES:
    - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at:
      /etc/letsencrypt/live/namespace.example.com/fullchain.pem
      Your key file has been saved at:
      /etc/letsencrypt/live/namespace.example/privkey.pem
      Your cert will expire on 2019-09-19. To obtain a new or tweaked
      version of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot-auto
      again. To non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run
      "certbot-auto renew"
    -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
    - Your account credentials have been saved in your Certbot
      configuration directory at /etc/letsencrypt. You should make a
      secure backup of this folder now. This configuration directory will
      also contain certificates and private keys obtained by Certbot so
      making regular backups of this folder is ideal.
  3. Create certificate and private key files. Using the contents of the files returned by Certbot, we'll create two files in order to create the Kubernetes secret:

    Run the following command to see the contents of fullchain.pem:

    sudo cat /etc/letsencrypt/live/node-function-11909507.knative.info/fullchain.pem

    Output should look like this:

    -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b4ag==
    -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    K2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e30Qg==
    -----END CERTIFICATE-----

    Create a file with the name cert.pem with the contents of the entire output.

    Once cert.pem is created, run the following command to see the contents of privkey.pem:

    sudo cat /etc/letsencrypt/live/namespace.example/privkey.pem

    Output should look like this:

    -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    2fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    04f294d1eaca42b8692017b426d53bbc8fe75f827734f0260710b83a556082df
    -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
    fcb195768c39e9a94cec2c2e32c59c0aad7a3365c10892e8116b5d83d4096b6
    4f294d1eaca42b8692017b4262==
    -----END PRIVATE KEY-----

    Create a new file with the name cert.pk with the contents of the entire output.

  4. Create a Kubernetes secret to hold your TLS certificate, cert.pem, and the private key cert.pk:

    NOTE: Note: Running kubectl commands on your cluster requires setting up access to the cluster first. For clusters created on GKE, see GKE Cluster Access. For other platforms, install kubectl.

    kubectl create --namespace istio-system secret tls istio-ingressgateway-certs \
    --key cert.pk \
    --cert cert.pem

    Where cert.pem and cert.pk are your certificate and private key files. Note that the istio-ingressgateway-certs secret name is required.

  5. Configure Knative to use the new secret that you created for HTTPS connections. Run the following command to open the Knative shared gateway in edit mode:

    kubectl edit gateway knative-ingress-gateway --namespace knative-serving

    Update the gateway to include the following tls: section and configuration:

    tls:
      mode: SIMPLE
      privateKey: /etc/istio/ingressgateway-certs/tls.key
      serverCertificate: /etc/istio/ingressgateway-certs/tls.crt

    Example:

    apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
    kind: Gateway
    metadata:
      # ... skipped ...
    spec:
      selector:
        istio: ingressgateway
      servers:
        - hosts:
            - "*"
          port:
            name: http
            number: 80
            protocol: HTTP
        - hosts:
            - "*"
          port:
            name: https
            number: 443
            protocol: HTTPS
          tls:
            mode: SIMPLE
            privateKey: /etc/istio/ingressgateway-certs/tls.key
            serverCertificate: /etc/istio/ingressgateway-certs/tls.crt

    After your changes are running on your Knative cluster, you can begin using the HTTPS protocol for secure access your deployed Knative services. In the event a mistake is made during this process and you need to update the cert, you will need to edit the gateway knative-ingress-gateway to switch back to PASSTHROUGH mode. Once corrections are made, edit the file again so the gateway will use the new certificates.